اثرات دگرآسیبی کهور پاکستانی بر بهبود صفات رویشی بذرهای مغیر ( Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf) و گبر (Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Hayne) در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان هرمزگان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بندرعباس، ایران.

2 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی محیط‌زیست، گروه محیط‌زیست، واحد بندرعباس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بندرعباس، ایران.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: دگرآسیبی، فعل و انفعالات بین گیاهان است که منجر به تحریک یا بازدارندگی رویش و جوانه‎زنی سایر گونه‎ها می‎شود. گونه غیربومی کهور پاکستانی (Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC) به‎عنوان گونه‎ مهاجم و دارای اثرات دگرآسیبی شناخته شده است که می‎تواند با تولید ترکیبات آللوپاتیک از قبیل فنول‎ها و آلکالوئیدها در محیط، سبب بازدارندگی رشد گونه‎ها شود. دو گونه مهم گبر و مغیر از مهمترین گونه‎های بومی استان هرمزگان هستند که کهور پاکستانی اغلب همراه با این گونه‎ها دیده می‏شود. لذا، در جنگل‎کاری‎ها انتخاب صحیح گونه درختی بایستی با احتیاط صورت گیرد تا اثرات منفی بر روی گونه‎های بومی نداشته باشد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی اثرات دگرآسیبی اندام‎های مختلف کهور پاکستانی بر جوانه‎زنی، طول ریشه‎چه و ساقه‎چه دو گونه مغیر و گبر است.
مواد و روش‎ها: اندام‎های کهور پاکستانی جمع‎آوری و عصاره از اندام‎های مختلف با غلظت‎های 0، 2، 4، 6 و 8 درصد تهیه شد و بر روی بذرهای گبر و مغیر در شرایط اتاق رشد، اعمال شد و پس از ثبت جوانه‎زنی‎، در انتهای دوره 30 روزه طول ریشه‎چه و ساقه‎چه اندازه‎گیری شد. آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام گرفت داده‎ها با استفاده از واریانس دو طرفه تجزیه و تحلیل شد.
یافته‎ها: نتایج نشان داد درصد جوانه‎زنی گونه گبر در اندام برگ در غلظت 8 درصد با مقدار 11/16 درصد، کمترین مقدار را داشت. طول ساقه‎چه در گبر و مغیر با مقادیر 73/1 و 9/3 سانتی‎متر در اندام برگ، به‎طور معنی‎داری کمتر از سایر اندام‎ها بود. طول ساقه‎چه دو گونه گبر و مغیر در تیمار شاهد به ترتیب با 58/3 و 5 سانتی‎متر به‎طور معنی‎داری بیشترین مقدار را داشت. اثرات متقابل اندام × غلظت بر طول ریشه‎چه و ساقه‎چه در گونه گبر و مغیر نیز از اختلاف معنی‎داری برخوردار بود. طول ریشه‎چه و ساقه‎چه گونه گبر و مغیر در اندام برگ با مقادیر 25/1 و 73/1 سانتی‎متر و 98/1 و 9/3 سانتی‎متر به‎طور معنی‎داری کمتر از پوست و ریشه بود.
نتیجه‎گیری: نتایج تحقیق حاکی از وجود اثر بازدارندگی عصاره آبی ریشه، پوست و برگ کهور پاکستانی بر درصد جوانه‎زنی، طول ریشه‎چه و ساقه‎چه دو گونه مغیر و گبر در شرایط آزمایشگاهی بود. در بین اندام‎های مورد بررسی، برگ بیشترین اثر بازدارندگی را در پی داشت که از طریق ریزش حجم بالای لاشریزه در زیر تاج این گونه در محیط و ورود ترکیبات سمی آن به خاک سطحی در اثر تجزیه، از رشد گونه جنگلی گبر و مغیر جلوگیری میکند. بر طبق نتایج، مشخص شد کهور پاکستانی، اثرات دگرآسیبی بر جوانه زنی و رشد رویشی گونه‎های بومی دارد. همچنین، ریشه کمترین اثر بازدارندگی را بر روی متغیرهای مورد بررسی داشت. بنابراین، توصیه می‎شود انتخاب گونه‎های غیربومی برای جنگل‎کاری دقت بیشتری شود و انتخاب گونه‎های بومی برای احیاء و توسعه جنگل‎ها گزینه مناسب‎تری در بوم‎سازگان حساس و شکننده جنوب کشور است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Allelopathic effects of Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC on improving the vegetative traits of Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Hayne seeds under laboratory conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Moslehi 1
  • Akram Ahmadi 2
  • Asghar Bizhani 3
2 Research Division of Natural Resources, Golestan. Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
3 PhD student of Enviromental Science and Engineering. Department of Environment, Bandar Abbas, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Allelopathy is the interaction between plants that stimulates or inhibits the growth and germination of other species. Non-native species of (Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC) is one of the species known as invasive species with allelopathic effects that can inhibit the growth and growth of species by producing allopathic compounds such as phenols, alkaloids into the environment. Two important species of Hormoozgan province are Acacia oerfota and Acacia tortilis which P.juliflora was observed with them in the natural forests, Therefore, the correct selection of tree species in forest plantation should be done with caution in order to inhibit negative effects on native species. The aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of different organs of p. juliflora on germinatin, radicle and plumule length of Ac. tortilis and A. oerfota.

Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the organs (root, bark and leaf) of P.juliflora were collected and different extract concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) were prepared were added on A.tortilis and A. oerfota (4 replications, n=60) in growth chamber, and after recording germination, the plumule and radicle length were meausered after 30 days. Factorial experiment was performed through completely randomized design and was analyzed by two-way variance analyses.
Results: Results showed that the lowest gemination percentage in A.tortilis was observed at 8% concentration with the amount of 16.11%. The plumule length of A. tortilis and A. oerfota in aquatic extraction of leaves (1.73 and 3.9 cm) was significantly lower than other organs. Also, the plumule length of A. tortilis (3.58 cm) and A. oerfota (5 cm) had the highest amounts in control. The interaction effects of organ × concentration showed that plumule and radicle length in A.tortilis and A. oerfota had the significant differences. The interactions of organ × concentration on radicle and plumule length in A.tortilis and A. oerfota species were also significantly different. The radicle and plumule length of A. tortilis and A. oerfota in leaf organ with values of 1.25, 1.73 cm and 1.98 and 3.9 cm were significantly less than bark and roots, respectively.
Conclusion: The results showed that there were inhibitory effects of aqueous extract of Prosopis juliflora root, bark and leaves on the germination percentage, root length and stem length of two important species of Acacia tortilis and Acacia oerfota in laboratory condition. Among the three studied organs, the leaf organ had the most inhibitory effects, which due to the high volume of litter under the canopy of this species in the environment and the entry of toxic compounds into the surface soil due to decomposition, prevents the growth of Acacia tortilis and Acacia oerfota that P. juliflora is seen with these species and overcome on them. Also, the root had the lowest inhibitory In according to the results, P.juliflora has allelopathic effects on native species. Therefore, it is recommended to choose non-native species for afforestation more carefully and using native species for reforestation and afforestation in the south fragile ecosystem of Iran is more suitable option.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allelopathy
  • germination
  • P.juliflora
  • native species
  • Laboratory condition
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