تغییرات تنوع اکوتیپی جمعیت های گونه بلندمازو در طول گرادیان خشکی (غربی-شرقی) استان گلستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد ، جنگل‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

2 دانشیار، بیوتکنولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

3 دانش‌آموخته دکتری ، علوم جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: استان گلستان واقع در بخش شرقی جنگل‌های شمال ایران دارای پراکنش وسیع جغرافیایی گونه بلندمازو از نظر میزان بارندگی، درجه حرارت و نوع خاک است. وجود گرادیان‌های اقلیمی از غرب به شرق استان گلستان اثرات متفاوتی بر تنوع ژنتیکی و اکوتیپی جمعیت‌های درختی در گذر زمان می‌گذارد که اطلاع از میزان این تنوع ما را در مدیریت حفاظت از ساختار ژنتیکی این گونه‌ها یاری می-رساند. تنوع ژنتیکی درختان برای سازگاری جنگل‌ها با تغییرات اقلیمی و حفظ و بقای سایر گونه‌ها و کل اکوسیستم جنگل بسیار حائز اهمیت است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی تغییرات تنوع اکوتیپی جمعیت‌های بلندمازو در طول گرادیان خشکی (غربی-شرقی) استان گلستان می‌باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای انجام این پژوهش چهار جمعیت مختلف بلندمازو از غرب به شرق استان گلستان واقع در مناطق رویشگاهی توسکستان، علی‌آباد کتول، لوه و گلیداغ انتخاب گردید. ابتدا در هر جمعیت حدود 100 پایه بلندمازو با قطر مشابه و سالم و با فاصله تقریبی 50 تا 100 متر از همدیگر برای اجتناب از قرابت‌های احتمالی شناسایی و از میان آن‌ها 20 پایه بلندمازو به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب شدند. پس از انجام نمونه‌برداری، مطالعه کیفی نشانگر پراکسیداز شاخه دوساله با استفاده از الکتروفورز عمودی و به‌روش پلی‌اکریل آمید ژل الکتروفورز (PAGE) انجام شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها، امتیازدهی باندها به‌صورت صفر و یک به‌ترتیب برای عدم حضور و حضور باندها از روی ژل‌های تهیه شده انجام گرفت. سپس جهت تجزیه خوشه‌ای، تجزیه به مختصات اصلی و همچنین تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها در خصوص ویژگی‌های آللی نشانگر مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد آلل مشاهده شده، تعداد آلل مؤثر، شاخص اطلاعات شانون، هتروزیگوتی و درصد چندشکلی و تعیین تنوع اکوتیپی درون و بین جمعیتی از نرم‌افزارهای GenAlex و NTSYS استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج این تحقیق بر اساس آلل کل، مشاهده شده، موثر و هتروزیگوتی نشانگر پراکسیداز نشان داد که تنوع اکوتیپی و پارامترهای تنوع ژنتیکی مورد بررسی در گرادیان غربی-شرقی رویشگاه‌های مختلف استان گلستان متفاوت بوده و در گذشته‌های دور جریان ژنی از طریق جمعیت‌های همجوار برقرار بوده است به‌طوری که اکوتیپ‌ها کاملاً قابل تفکیک از یکدیگر نیستند. شاخص اطلاعات شانون نیز در جمعیت‌ها از 179/0 تا 334/0 و هتروزیگوتی از 120/0 الی 218/0 متغیر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: برای مدیریت حفظ و توسعه‌ی تنوع ژنتیکی این توده‌ها باید در درجه اول نسبت به تثبیت شرایط حاضر به لحاظ تنوع از طریق اهمیت دادن و حفظ پایه‌های شاخص درون جمعیت‌ها و کمک به تجدید حیات آن‌ها و در درجه بعدی نسبت به توسعه تنوع موجود برای مقابله با تهدیدات تغییرات اقلیمی از طریق جریان ژنی به‌کمک انتقال بذر و نهال از جمعیت‌های همجوار موجود در صورت امکان بهره برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecotypic diversity changes of Quercus castaneifolia populations in drought gradient length (western-eastern) of Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Ahmadi mazracheh 1
  • Davoud Azadfar 2
  • Zohre Saeedi 3
2 , Associate prof. in Forest Biotechnology, Forest Science Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
3 PhD Graduate Student at Forest, Forest Science Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Golestan province located in the eastern part of northern forests of Iran has a wide geographical distribution of Quercus castaneifolia in terms of rainfall, temperature and soil type. Climatic gradients from the west to the east of Golestan province have different impacts on the genetic and the ecotype diversity of tree populations in time that knowing the amount of this diversity helps us to manage/maintain the genetic structure of these species. The genetic diversity of trees is so important for adaptation of forests to climate change and for sustaining other species and entire forest ecosystems. The aim of this research is exploring the ecotypic diversity changes of Quercus castaneifolia populations in drought gradient (western-eastern) of Golestan province.
Materials and methods: To do the study, four different populations of Quercus castaneifolia from West to East of Golestan province in habitat areas of Tuskestan, Aliabadekatul, Loveh and Golidagh were selected. First, about 100 bases of Quercus castaneifolia with similar diameter and healthy and with approximately 50 to 100 meters distance from each other to avoid the possible affinity in each population were considered and then 20 bases of Quercus castaneifolia among them were randomly selected. After sampling qualitative study of marker peroxidase of the organ of biennial branch in four different populations was done by the use of vertical electrophoresis and by the method of Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). To analyze the data, scoring of bands into zero and one respectively for the absence and presence of bands was done based on the prepared gels. Then respective software packages were used to cluster analysis, Principle Coordinate Analysis as well as data analysis regarding the allelic characteristics of studied marker including the number of observed alleles, effective alleles, Shanon,s information index, hetrozygosity and polymorphic percentage and ecotype diversity within and among populations.
Results: The results of this research based on total, observed, effective alleles and hetrozygosity of the peroxidase marker showed that ecotype diversity and genetic diversity parameters examined in the western-eastern gradient of the different habitats of Golestan province is different and in the distant past, the genetic flow has been established through adjacent populations so that ecotypes are not separable.
Conclusion: To manage the maintenance and development of the genetic diversity of these stands, at first it is necessary to stabilize the present condition with respect to the diversity through emphasizing and maintaining the index bases inside the populations and helping their regeneration and secondly, developing the present diversity to combat the climate change threats through gene flow with the help of seed and seedling transition from the adjacent populations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecotype
  • Golestan province
  • Quercus castaneifolia
  • Drought gradient
  • Peroxidase marker
 1.Ali Ahmad Korori, S. 1999. Investigation on responses of forest trees enzymes to alteration of environmental factors. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Press, 333p. (In Persian) 2.Alikhani, L., Rahmani, M.S.,
Shabanian, N., and Badakhshan, H. 2014. Genetic diversity assessment of Quercus infectoria and Q. libani populations in North-Zagros forests based on ISSR and IRAP markers. Iranian J. of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 22: 1. 79-90. (In Persian)
3.Babaie, F., Jalali, S.G., and Azadfar, D. 2010. Genetic variation investigation on Zelkova carpinifolia, from three Iranian north lowland habitats using leaf peroxidase. Iranian J. of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 18: 1. 83-92. (In Persian)
4.Berg, E.E., and Hamrick, J.L. 1993. Regional genetic variation in Turkey oak, Quercus laevis. Canadian J. of Forest Research. 23: 7. 1270-1274.
5.Chen, D.M., Zhang, X.X., Kang, H.Z., Sun, X., Yin, S., Du, H.M., Yamanaka, N., Gapare, W., Wu, H.X., and Liu,
C.J. 2012. Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis based on chloroplast DNA sequence in East Asia: multiple glacial refugia and Mainland-Migrated island populations. Open Access Scientific J. of Public Library of Science ONE.7: 10. e47268.
6.Craft, J., and Ashley, V. 2007. Landscape genetic structure of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savannas in Illinois. Forest Ecology and Management. 239: 13-20.
7.Ebermann, R., and Stich, K. 1982. Peroxidase and amylase isoenzymes in the sapwood and heartwood of trees. Phytochemistry. 21: 2401-2402.
8.Elena-Rossello, J.A., and Cabrera, E. 1996. Isozyme variation in natural populations of Cork-Oak (Quercus suber L.). Silva Genetica. 45: 4. 229-235.
9.Fallah, H., Tabari, M., and Azadfar, D. 2011. Determination ecotypes of Populus caspica Bornm. In plain communities of Caspian forests using morphological markers of leaf and peroxidase isoenzymes. Taxonomy and Biosystematics. 3: 6. 48-57. (In Persian)
10.Ghandehari, V., Ahmadikhah, A., and Payamnoor, V. 2013. Genetic diversity of Buxus hyrcana populations in north of Iran using ISSR markers. Iranian J. of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 21: 1. 1-12.
(In Persian)
11.Ghelichkhani, M.M., Tabari, M., Akbarinia, M., and Espahbodi, K. 2006. Influence of light intensity and root pruning on growth. Pajouesh and Sazandegi. 66: 2-7. (In Persian)
12.Gomory, D., Yakovlev, I., Zhelev, P., Jedinakova, J., and Paule, L. 2001. Genetic differentiation of oak populations within the Quercus robur / Quercus petraea complex in Central and Eastern Europe. The Genetics Society of Great Britain. 86: 557-563.
13.Hafezi Shahrudiyan, S. 2010. Genetic diversity of Cupressus sempervirens in stands of north of Iran using molecular and biochemical markers. M.Sc. thesis, Forestry and Wood Technology Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural
and Natural Resources Sciences, 188p. (In Persian)
14.Hampe, A., and Petit, RJ. 2005. Conserving biodiversity under climate change, the rear edge matters. Ecology Letters. 8: 461-467.
15.Hamrick, J.L., and Godt, M.J.W. 1996. Conservation genetics of endemic plant species, In: Avise, J.C., Hamrick, J.L. (Eds.), Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman and Hall, New York.
16.Hatziskakis, S., Tsiripidis, I., and Papageorgiou, A.C. 2011. Leaf morphological variation in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations in Greece and its relation to their post-glacial origin. Botanical J. of the Linnean Society.165: 422-436.
17.Jiang, Zh., Yuxia, Ch., and Ying, B. 2012. Population genetic structure of Tamarix chinensis in the Yellow River Delta, China. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 298: 147-153.
18.Jimenez, P., Agundez, D., Alla, R., and Gil, L. 1999. Genetic variation in central and marginal populations of Quercus suber L. Silvae Genetica. 48: 6. 278-284.
19.Karimi, L., and Azadfar, D. 2011. Consideration and comparison of genetic diversity of English yew species (Tamarix baccata L.) by using branch and leaf peroxidase. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 18: 2. 227-238. (In Persian)
20.Kiyani, B. 2005. Forest genetic (Development of tree and forest). Haghshenas Press, Rasht, 212p. (In Persian)
21.Mahmoodi Zarinabadi, M.B., Azadfar, D., and Saeedi, Z. 2014. Comparison of the efficiency of leaf morphological and peroxidase isozyme markers in segregation of Fagus orientalis Lipsky plus and non-plus trees in Shastkalate forest-Gorgan. J. of Wood and Forest Science and Technology. 20: 4. 197-210. (In Persian)
22.Mirderikvand, M., Nematzadeh, Gh.A., Alami, A., and Ghereh yazi, B. 2005. Study of the genetic diversity of Iranian rice using Isozyme markers. Iranian J.of Agriculture sciences. 35: 143-153.(In Persian)
23.Monerri, C., and Guardiola, J. 2001. Peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profile in buds and leaves in relation to flowering in Satsuma mandarin. Scientia Horticulturae. 90: 1-2. 43-56.
24.Naderi Shahab, M.A. 2013. Iran oaks. Azad Peyma Press, Tehran, 305p. (In Persian)
25.Neale, D.B., and Kremer, A. 2011. Forest tree genomics: growing resources and applications. Nature Reviews Genetics. 12: 111-122.
26.Ningre, F., and Colin, F. 2007.Frost damage on the terminal shoot as a risk factor of fork incidence on common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Annals of Forest Science. 64: 79-86.
27.Ohsawa, T., Saito, Y., Sawada, H., and Ide, Y. 2008. Impact of altitude and topography on genetic diversity of Quercus serrate populations in the Chichibu Mountains, central Japan. Flora–Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 203: 187-196.
28.Okaura, T., Quang, N.D., Ubukata, M., and Harada, K. 2007. Phylogeographic structure and late quaternary population history of the Japanese oak Quercuse mongolica var. crispula and related species revealed by chloroplast DNA variation. Genes and Genetic Systems. 82: 465-477.
29.Peakall, R., and Smouse, P.E. 2006. GENALEX 6.2: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes. 6: 288-295.
30.Petit, R.J., Csaikl, U.M., Bordacs, S., Burg, K., Coart, E., Cottrell, J., Dam, B.V., Deans, J.D., Dumolin-Lapegue, S., Fineschi, S., Finkeldey, R., Gillies, A., Glaz, I., Goicoechea, P.G., Jensen, J.S., Konig, A.O., Lowe, A.J., Madsen, S.F., Matyas, G., Munro, R.C., Olalde, M., Pemonge, M., Popescu, F., Slade, D., Tabbener, H., Taurchini, D., Vries, S.G., Ziegenhagen, B., and Kremer, A. 2002. Chloroplast DNA variation in European white oaks phylogeography and patterns of diversity based data from over
2600 populations. Forest Ecology and Management. 156: 5-26.
31.Rahmani, A., Seighali, N., and Ebrahimzadeh, H. 2014. Exploring the changes of peroxidase activity in different concentrations of H2O2 and different amounts of pH in Saffron in sleep-wake. New Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology J. 3: 10. 79-84. (In Persian)
32.Reisi, Sh., Jalali, S.Gh.A., and Espahbodi, K. 2011. An investigation of genetic variation of (Quercus castaneifolia C.M Mey) in Neka and Noor forest of Mazandaran using peroxides activities. Taxonomy and Biosystematics. 3: 7. 11-22. (In Persian)
33.Rohlf, F.J. 1998. NTSYS-pc ver. 2.02. Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Exeter Publishing, Setauket.
34.Ruhimoghadam, A., Hoseini, S.M., Ebrahimi, A., Rahmani, A., and Tabari, M. 2008. The effect of mixing rates on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of oak-Zelkova plantation. Pajouesh va Sazandgi. 77: 155-168. (In Persian)
35.Sabeti, H. 2004. Trees and shrubs of Iran. Yazd University Press, 876p.(In Persian)
36.Sakka, H., Baraket, G., Abdessemad, A., Tounsi, K., Ksontini, M., and Salhi-Hannachi, A. 2015. Molecular phylogeny and genetic diversity of Tunisian Quercus species using chloroplast DNA CAPS markers. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology. 60: 258-265.
37.Samuel, R., Pinsker, W., and Ehrendorfer, F. 1995. Electrophoretic analysis of genetic variation within and between populations of Quercus cerris, Q. pubescens, Q. petraea and Q. robur (Fagaceae) from Eastern Austria. Botanica Acta. 108: 4. 290-299.
38.Shabanian, N., Alikhani, L., and Rahmani, M.S. 2015. Phenotypic and genotypic diversity in brant oak (Quercus brantii) populations of declining north-Zagros forests using biochemical characteristics and molecular SCoT marker. Iranian J. of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 23: 1. 13-29.(In Persian)
39.Shabanian, N., Havasi, A., and Mehrabi, A.A. 2016. Genetic differentiation in Persian oak (Quercus brantii) populations using genomic inter-microsatellite markers. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research.24: 1. 66-78. (In Persian)
40.Shiran, B., Mashayekhi, S., Jahanbazi, H,. Soltani, A., and Bruschi, P. 2011. Morphological and molecular diversity among populations of Quercus brantii Lindl. In western forest of Iran. Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology: Official J. of the Societa Botanica Italiana. 145: 2. 452-460.
41.Whitham, T.G., Bailey, J.K., Schweitzer, J.A., Shuster, S.M., Bangert, R.K., LeRoy, C.J., Lonsdorf, E.V., Allan, G.J., DiFazio, S.P., Potts, B.M., Fischer, D.G., Gehring, C.A., Lindroth, R.L., Marks, J.C., Hart, S.C., Wimp, G.M., and Wooley, S.C. 2006. A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. Nature Reviews Genetics. 7: 510-523.
42.Zhang, X., Li, Y., Liu, C., Xia, T., Zhang, Q., and Fang, Y. 2015. Phytogeography of the temperate tree species Quercus acutissima in China: Inferences from chloroplast DNA variations. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology. 63: 190-197.