تاثیر پوشش درختی گلابی وجشی چم حصار لرستان بر خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 استادیار گروه جنگلداری دانشکده منابع طبیعی کردستان

3 گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی؛ دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: مدیریت‌های مختلف جنگل علاوه بر تأثیر مستقیم بر خاک، به طور غیر مستقیم نیز از طریق تغییر یا تخریب پوشش گیاهی بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک اثر خواهند گذاشت. ذخیره‌گاه‌ها از رایج‌ترین سیستم‌های حفاظتی در مدیریت اکوسیستمی جنگل‌های ایران می‌باشند که می‌توانند به طور مستقیم و یا غیر مستقیم خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک را تحت تأثیر قرار دهند. با توجه به اینکه در ایران مطالعات کافی جهت کمی سازی اثرات این نوع حفاظت بر روی خصوصیات خاک انجام نشده است لذا، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر مدیریت حفاظتی کوتاه‌مدت بر مهم‌ترین خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک ذخیره‌گاه گلابی وحشی چم‌حصار دلفان، انجام شد. بدیهی است ارزیابی تاثیرات حاصل از این نوع روش‌مدیریتی بر خاک می‌تواند راه‌گشای مدیران در زمینه ادامه این روند باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای نمونه‌برداری از خاک علاوه بر نواحی مرکزی و پیرامونی ذخیره‌گاه مورد بررسی، منطقه‌ای با خصوصیات فیزیوگرافی مشابه در خارج از ذخیره‌گاه (شاهد) انتخاب گردید. سپس سه ترانسکت 250 متری با فواصل 40 متر از ناحیه مرکزی ذخیره‌گاه به سمت ناحیه پیرامونی و خارجی ذخیره‌گاه با جهت شمال شرقی- جنوب غربی پیاده و در فواصل 20 متری بر روی هر ترانسکت از زیر نزدیک‌ترین پایه درخت گلابی یک نمونه ترکیبی تا عمق 10 سانتی‌متری خاک برداشت سپس مقادیر کربن آلی، نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، هدایت الکتریکی، اسیدیته و منیزیم خاک در آزمایشگاه اندازه گیری شد. در مجموع 36 نمونه خاک در سه ناحیه برداشت شد. پس از آزمون نرمال بودن توزیع مشاهده‌ها با آزمون کولموگروف اسمیرنوف، مقایسه میانگین‌ها با استفاده از تجزیه واریانس یک‌طرفه و مقایسه چندگانه میانگین‌ها با آزمون دانکن انجام گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد از نظر آماری اختلاف معنی‌داری در مقادیر کربن آلی، نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، هدایت الکتریکی، اسیدیته و منیزیم خاک سه ناحیه وجود دارد. بیشترین میزان کربن آلی (57/9 درصد)، نیتروژن (25/0 درصد)، فسفر (32/4 میلی‌گرم برکیلوگرم)، پتاسیم (33/57 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) و هدایت الکتریکی (70/198 میکروزیمنس بر متر) در خاک ناحیه مرکزی و بیشترین میزان اسیدیته (62/7) و منیزیم (56/8 میلی‌گرم برکیلوگرم) در خاک ناحیه خارجی ذخیره‌گاه مشاهده گردید. به‌ عبارتی از خارج ذخیره‌گاه به سمت ناحیه مرکزی میزان کربن، نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و هدایت الکتریکی خاک روندی افزایشی و منیزیم و اسیدیته خاک روندی کاهشی داشته است.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از تأثیر مثبت مدیریت حفاظتی بر خصوصیات شیمیایی مطالعه شده در خاک است. درواقع حفاظت با کاهش تخریب‌ها و جلوگیری از ورود دام به عرصه حفاظتی باعث افزایش پوشش گیاهی و به دنبال آن تأثیر معنی‌دار بر خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک شده است. در واقع با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از این پژوهش می‌توان بیان نمود که بکار گرفتن روش-های حفاظتی مناسب می‌تواند با حفظ و بهبود خصوصیات خاک و به‌علاوه پوشش درختی و گیاهی، زمینه پایداری اکوسیستم‌ها، حفظ و افزایش زادآوری در جنگل‌ها بخصوص جنگل‌های زاگرس را فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of pear tree vegetation of chamhesar, Lorestan on Some Soil Chemical Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadis Nadi 1
  • vahid Hosseini 2
  • Kiomars Mohmmadi Samani 3
1 Department of Forestry, Natural resources Faculty, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Department of Forestry, Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
3 Department of Forestry, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Some forest management, in addition to direct impact on soil, will also affect indirectly soil physical and chemical properties by changing or degrading vegetation cover. Accordingly, forest reserves are most common protection systems in the Iran forest ecosystems management that can affect physio-chemical properties of soil directly or indirectly. Since there are not enough studies to quantity the effects of this type of protection on soil properties in Iran, therefore, this study was done by following aim: to assessment the effect of short-term protection management on some chemical properties of the soil in Chamhesar Pear forest reserve in Delfan. Thus assessing the impacts of this type of management on the soil can lead managers to continue the process.
Materials and Methods: In addition, sampling of soil in the core and buffer zones of the studied area, a region with similar physiographic characteristics was selected outside the reserve (as control). Soil samples were collected on three transects with 250 m length and north-east to south-west direction with a height difference of 40 meters towards the core and buffer zones. Each transect consist of 3 zones: core, buffer and transition zones. Soil samples were collected at intervals of 20 meters on each transect under crown of the nearest Pears tree at depth of 10 cm. Overall in the three transects, 36 soil samples were taken. Then the normalization of the data was determined by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the comparison of the means and multiple comparison of the means was done respectively using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the amounts of organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, electrical conductivity, acidity and magnesium of soil in three zones. The highest amount of organic carbon (9.57%), nitrogen (0.25%), phosphorus (4.32 mg / kg), potassium (57.33 mg / kg) and electrical conductivity (198.70 µs/ m) was measured in the soil of core zone and the highest levels of acidity and magnesium of soil was 7.62 and 8.56 mg/kg respectively, in the transition zone. In the other words, the amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and electrical conductivity of soil has increased and level of acidity and magnesium of soil has decreased from the transition zone to core zone.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that protection management had positive effect on the chemical properties of soil. In fact, protection has been caused to preventing grazing, increasing vegetation cover and decreasing rate of destruction, as a result a significant effect on some chemical properties of soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Short-term conservation
  • Soil chemical properties
  • Wild pear reserve
  • Lorestan
  • Central Zagros
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