حذف سرب از محلول‌های آبی با استفاده از ژل نانو فیبر سلولز باکتریایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه محیط زیست دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: فلزات سنگین از جمله سرب به علت سمیت، پایداری و عدم قابلیت تجزیه بیولوژیکی اثرات سوء فراوانی بر موجودات زنده و محیط‌زیست می‌گذارندحضور فلزات سنگین در آب‌های سطحی و آب‌های زیر‌زمینی تبدیل به یک مشکل عمده آلودگی معدنی شده است تخلیه و تصفیه فاضلاب صنعتی حاوی فلزات سنگین مسائل مهم در حفاظت از محیط‌زیست می‌باشد. روش‌های مختلفی جهت حذف فلزات سنگین وجود دارد که یکی از بهترین روش‌ها جذب سطحی است. هدف از این پژوهش استفاده از ژل نانو فیبرهای سلولزی باکتریایی جهت حذف یون‌های فلز سنگین سرب از محلول‌های آبی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: ابتدا ژل نانو فیبرهای سلولزی باکتریایی به عنوان نانوبیو مواد طبیعی که دارای قطر در محدوده نانومتری و طول تا چند میکرون است، خریداری شد. سپس محلول استوک از نمک نیترات سرب در آب مقطر دیونیزه تهیه شد. محلول‌های آزمایش در غلظت‌های متفاوت از رقیق کردن محلول استوک اولیه با آب مقطر دیونیزه تهیه شدند.pH محلول با استفاده از محلول‌های 1/0 مولار نیتریک اسید و سدیم هیدروکسید در ابتدای آزمایش تنظیم شدند و بعد از شروع آزمایش کنترل نشدند. در این مطالعه پارامترهایی از جمله تأثیر pH، دما، زمان تماس، مقدار جاذب و غلظت در سیستم ناپیوسته و با سه بار تکرار بررسی گردید. محلول‌های حاوی جاذب در ارلن مایر 250 میلی لیتری قرارداده شده و در شیکر با دور rpm120 در زمان‌های مشخص قرار گرفتند و پس از آن نمونه‌ها در سانتریفیوژ با rpm 4000 به مدت 5 دقیقه قرار گرفتند. میزان غلظت یون‌های سرب در محلول با استفاده دستگاه اسپکتروفتومتر جذب اتمی تعیین شدند. جهت بررسی مکانیسم جذب سطحی از مدل‌های ایزوترمی فروندلیچ و لانگمویر و پارامترهای سینتیکی استفاده شد. نرم‌افزار Excel برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که حداکثر راندمان جذب سرب در ژل نانو فیبرهای سلولزی باکتریایی در شرایط 5pH= ، زمان 50 دقیقه و دمای 25 درجه سانتی‌گرادو جرم جاذب 35/0 گرم، برابر 2/93± بوده است.. که بیانگر این است جذب در شرایط مناسب انجام شده است. مطالعات سیستم ناپیوسته ایزوترم نشان داد که جذب از مدل فروندلیچ پیروی می‌کند و سینتیک جذب از معادله شبه مرتبه دوم تبعیت داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: بنابراین بر اساس یافته‌های این مطالعه چنین می‌توان گفت که ژل نانو فیبرهای سلولزی باکتریایی می‌تواند به عنوان یک جاذب مناسب و دوستدار محیط زیست با سطح ویژه بالا جهت حذف فلزات سنگین از محلول‌های آبی به ویژه از فاضلاب صنایع استفاده شود. در مقایسه با سایر تحقیق‌های مشابه در زمینه جذب سطحی مشخص شد که این نانوجاذب از بهترین جاذب‌ها می‌باشد و می‌تواند به شکل موفقیت‌آمیزی برای حذف فلزات سنگین در صنایع مختلف استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Removal of Lead ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Bacterial Cellulose Nano Fibers Gel

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Rezaei 1
  • Soheila Maghsoodlu 2
1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
2 a. M.Sc. student of Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Environment and Fisheries, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Heavy metals such as Lead are toxic, stable and non-biological and causing numerous harmful effects on the environment and animals. Due to their mobility in natural water ecosystems and toxicity, the presence of heavy metals in surface water and ground water has become a major inorganic contamination problem. Discharge and treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals are important issues in environmental protection. There are several methods to remove the heavy metals from aqueous solutions that adsorption is one of the best one. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Bacterial Cellulose Nano Fibers Gel as adsorbent for the removal of Pb2 + ions from aqueous solutions.

Material and Methods: Firstly, Bacterial Cellulose Nano Fibers Gel as a natural bio-nanomaterial was purchased with diameter in nanometer scale and length of a few microns. Secondly, the stock solution of Pb was prepared by dissolving Pb(NO3)2.6H2O in deionized water. The test solutions of various concentrations were prepared from the stock solution. The solution pH was adjusted using 0.1 M HNO3 and 0.1 M NaOH at the beginning of the experiment and not controlled afterwards. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of solution pH, temperature, contact time, absorbent amount and initial metal concentration and repeated on several occasions. Solution containing adsorbate and adsorbent was taken in 250 mL capacity conical flask and agitated at 120 rpm in a shaker at predetermined time intervals. Samples putted on the centrifuge with 4000 rpm for 5 minutes. Lead ions were determined spectrophotometrically by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Finally, adsorption isotherm models and kinetic models were studied. Excel software were used for the analysis of data.
Results: The results of this study showed that the highest uptake was observed in condition of pH=5, contact time 50 minutes and temperature 25℃. Metal uptake capacity of adsorbent was very high so adsorption was done on favorable conditions. The batch isotherm studies showed that the adsorption data could be described by Freundlich model and kinetic model of the sorption were pseudo second order equation.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that, Bacterial Cellulose Nano Fibers Gel could be successfully used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions, especially for the industrial wastewaters. This bio-nanopolymer has high specific surface area and also is easy to use, renewable, and environmental friendly material. Comparing with other similar studies, this material was found to be an excellent adsorbent and can be successfully used by industries for removal of heavy metals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Lead
  • Adsorption
  • Bacterial Cellulose Nano Fibers Gel
1. Abdel-Ghani, NT., Hefny, M., and El-Chaghaby, GAF. 2007. Removal of lead from aqueous
solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents. Environ. Sci. Tech. J., 4: 67-73.
2. Ayar, A., Gürsal, S., Gürten, A., and Gezici, O. 2008. On the removal of some phenoli
compounds from aqueous solutions by using a sporopollenin-based ligand-exchange fixed
bed -Isotherm analysis. Desalination J., 219: 160-170.
3. Ballav, N., Debnath, S., Pillay, K., and Maity, A. 2015. Efficient removal of Reactive Black
from aqueous solution using polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose composite as a potential
adsorbent. Molecular Liquids J., 209: 387-396.
4. Cay, S., Uyanik, A., and Ozasik, A. 2004. Single and binary component adsorption of
Copper (II) and Cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions using tea-industry waste. sep purif
Technol. J. 38: 273-280.
5. Chen, A.H., Liu, S.C., Chen, C.Y. and Chen, C.Y. 2008. Comparative adsorption of Cu (II),
Zn(II), and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solution on the crosslinked chitosan with epichlorohydrin.
Hazardous Materials J. 154:3.184-191.
6. Choi, S., and Jeong, Y. 2008. The Removal of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solution by
Hydroxyapatite/Cellulose Composite. Fibers and Polymers J., 9: 3.267-270.
7. Dela Rosa, G., Reynel-Avila, HE., Bonilla, A., Cano-Rodriguez, Z., Velasco Santos, C., and
Martinez, AL. 2008. Recycling Poultry Feathers for Pb Removal from Wastewater: Kinetic
and Equilibrium Studies. Engineering and Technology J., 47: 394-402.
8. Donia, A.M., Atia, A.A., and Abouzayed, F.I. 2012. Preparation and characterization of
nano-magnetic cellulose with fast kinetic properties towards the adsorption of some metal
ions. Chemical Engineering J. 191: 22-30.
9. Febrianto, J., Kosasih, A., Sunarso, J., Ju, Y., Indraswati, N., and Ismadji, S. 2009.
Equilibrium and kinetic studies in adsorption of heavy metals using biosorbent: A summary
of recent studies. Hazardous Materials J., 162: 616-645.
10. Gafari Petrudi, R., Ariyayi Fard, M., Rezayati Cherani, P., and Vaziri, V. 2012. Features and
applications of nano-cellulose as nano-materials, eco-friendly and originating from nature.
Proceedings of the First National Conference on Management of Natural Resources.
11. Gupta, V., Mittal, A., Kurup, L., and Mittal, J. 2006. Adsorption of a hazardous dye,
erythrosine, over hen feathers. Coll. Inter. Sci. J., 304: 52-57.
12. Gupta, V.K., and Nayak, A. 2012. Cadmium removal and recovery from aqueous solutions
by novel adsorbents from orange peel and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering J. 180:
81-90.
13. Hokkanen, S., Repo, E., and Sillanpää, M. 2013. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous
solutions by succinic anhydride modified mercerized nanocellulose. Chemical Engineering J.
223: 40-47.
14. Honarmand, A. 2013. Removal of lead from water solution by modified pistachio husk
[Dissertation]. Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad Univ.
15. Ji, F., Li, C., Tang, B., Xu, J., Lu, G., and Li, P. 2012. Preparation of cellulose acetate/zeolite
composite fiber and its adsorption behavior for heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. Chem.
Eng. J., 209: 325-333.
16. Kardam, A., Raj, K.R., Srivastava, S., and Srivastava, M.M. 2014. Nano cellulose fibers for
biosorption of cadmium, nickel, and lead ions from aqueous solution. Clean Tech Env. J. 16:
385-393.
17. Liu, B., Lv, X., Meng, X., Yu, G., and Wang, D. 2013. Removal of Pb(II) from aqeous
solution using dithiocarbomate modified chitosan bead with Pb(II) as imprinted ions. Chem.
Eng. J., 220: 412-149.
18. Liu, D., Zhu, V., Li, Z., Tian, D., Chen, L., and Chen, P. 2013. Chitin nanofibrils for rapid
and efficient removal of metal ions from water system. Carbo. Poly. J., 98: 483-489.
19. Mahvi, A., Ghadiri, K., Yusefi, N., and Fatehi Nezhad, A. 2011. Activated sludge is dried in
the absorption of lead and cadmium: modeling of adsorption isotherms and kinetics of
reactions. Ghom, J. University of Medical Sci., 6: 1.9-17. (In Persian)
20. Manshuri, M., Yazdanbakhsh, A., Daraei, M., and Noorisepehr, M. 2012. Lead removal
from aqueous solution using ostrich feathers modified by hydrogen peroxide. Hormozgan, J.
Med. Sci., 17: 4.307-315. (In Persian)
21. Marandi, R., and Amir Afshar, H. 2007. Biosorption Pb (II) and Zn (II) by non-living
biomass (pHanerochaete chrysosporium). J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 10: 4. (In Persian)
22. Mehdinia, SM., Abdul- Latif, P., and Taghipour, H. 2013. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by
physico-biological filters using mixed rice husk silica and dried activated sludge. Clean Soil
Air Water J., 41: 949-54.
23. Mehri, A., Ghsemiyan, A., Afra, A., and Gafari, R. 2012. A variety of nano-cellulose and its
applications. Hamedan. Second National Conference on sustainable agricultural development
and a healthy environment. (In Persian)
24. Mehdizadeh, S., Sadjadi, S., Ahmadi, S.J., and Outokesh, M. 2014. Removal of heavy metals
from aqueous solution using platinum nanoparticles/Zeolite-4A. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng.
J., 12: 7.
25. Mishra, S., and Bhattacharya, J. 2007. Batch studies on phenol removal using leaf activated
carbon. Malay. J. Chem. J. 9: 1-15.
26. Padervand, M., and Gholami, M.R. 2013. Removal of toxic heavy metal ions from waste
water by functionalized magnetic core–zeolitic shell nanocomposites as adsorbents.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research J. 20: 6.3900-3909.
27. Rezaei, H. 2013. Biosorption of Chromium by Using Spirulina SP. Arabian Chemistry J. 7: 2
1-8.
28. Ruhani, A.A., Honarmand, A., and Mehdinia, S.M. 2014. Study the removal of lead from
aqueous solutions using the new sorbent made from the skin of pistachio modified. Shahrud,
J. of Knowledge and Health., 10: 3.53-58. (In Persian)
29. Suopajärvi, T., Liimatainen, H., Karjalainen, M., Upola, H., and Niinimäki, J. 2014. Lead
adsorption with sulfonated wheat pulp nanocelluloses. Water Proc. Eng. J.
30. Yousefi, H., Hejazi, S., Mousavi, M., Azusa, Y., Heidari, A.H. 2013. Comparative study on
paper and nanopaper properties prepared from bacterial cellulose and fibers/ground
nanofibers of canola straw. Industrial Crops and Products, 43: 732-737.
31. Yu, B., Zhang, Y., Shukla, A., Shukla, SS., and Dorris, KL. 2000. The removal of heavy
metal from aqueous solutions by sawdust adsorption removal of copper. Hazard Mater J. 80:
33-42.
32. Zhu, H., Jia, S., Wan, T., Jia, Y., Yang, H., Li, J., Yan, L., and Zhong, C. 2011. Biosynthesis
of spHerical Fe3O4/bacterial cellulose nanocomposites as adsorbents for heavy metal ions.
Carbo. Poly. J. 86: 1558-1564.
33. Zhu, J., Gu, H., Chen, M., Wei, H., Luo, Z., Colorado, H., Yerra, N., Ding, D., Ho, T.C.,
Haldolaaraching, N., Hopper, J., Young, D.P., Guo, Z., and Wei, S. 2014. Mesoporous
magnetic carbon nanocomposite fabrics for highly efficient Cr (III) removal. Materials
Chem. J. 2: 2256-2265.1. Abdel-Ghani, NT., Hefny, M., and El-Chaghaby, GAF. 2007. Removal of lead from aqueous
solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents. Environ. Sci. Tech. J., 4: 67-73.
2. Ayar, A., Gürsal, S., Gürten, A., and Gezici, O. 2008. On the removal of some phenoli
compounds from aqueous solutions by using a sporopollenin-based ligand-exchange fixed
bed -Isotherm analysis. Desalination J., 219: 160-170.
3. Ballav, N., Debnath, S., Pillay, K., and Maity, A. 2015. Efficient removal of Reactive Black
from aqueous solution using polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose composite as a potential
adsorbent. Molecular Liquids J., 209: 387-396.
4. Cay, S., Uyanik, A., and Ozasik, A. 2004. Single and binary component adsorption of
Copper (II) and Cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions using tea-industry waste. sep purif
Technol. J. 38: 273-280.
5. Chen, A.H., Liu, S.C., Chen, C.Y. and Chen, C.Y. 2008. Comparative adsorption of Cu (II),
Zn(II), and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solution on the crosslinked chitosan with epichlorohydrin.
Hazardous Materials J. 154:3.184-191.
6. Choi, S., and Jeong, Y. 2008. The Removal of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solution by
Hydroxyapatite/Cellulose Composite. Fibers and Polymers J., 9: 3.267-270.
7. Dela Rosa, G., Reynel-Avila, HE., Bonilla, A., Cano-Rodriguez, Z., Velasco Santos, C., and
Martinez, AL. 2008. Recycling Poultry Feathers for Pb Removal from Wastewater: Kinetic
and Equilibrium Studies. Engineering and Technology J., 47: 394-402.
8. Donia, A.M., Atia, A.A., and Abouzayed, F.I. 2012. Preparation and characterization of
nano-magnetic cellulose with fast kinetic properties towards the adsorption of some metal
ions. Chemical Engineering J. 191: 22-30.
9. Febrianto, J., Kosasih, A., Sunarso, J., Ju, Y., Indraswati, N., and Ismadji, S. 2009.
Equilibrium and kinetic studies in adsorption of heavy metals using biosorbent: A summary
of recent studies. Hazardous Materials J., 162: 616-645.
10. Gafari Petrudi, R., Ariyayi Fard, M., Rezayati Cherani, P., and Vaziri, V. 2012. Features and
applications of nano-cellulose as nano-materials, eco-friendly and originating from nature.
Proceedings of the First National Conference on Management of Natural Resources.
11. Gupta, V., Mittal, A., Kurup, L., and Mittal, J. 2006. Adsorption of a hazardous dye,
erythrosine, over hen feathers. Coll. Inter. Sci. J., 304: 52-57.
12. Gupta, V.K., and Nayak, A. 2012. Cadmium removal and recovery from aqueous solutions
by novel adsorbents from orange peel and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering J. 180:
81-90.
13. Hokkanen, S., Repo, E., and Sillanpää, M. 2013. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous
solutions by succinic anhydride modified mercerized nanocellulose. Chemical Engineering J.
223: 40-47.
14. Honarmand, A. 2013. Removal of lead from water solution by modified pistachio husk
[Dissertation]. Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad Univ.
15. Ji, F., Li, C., Tang, B., Xu, J., Lu, G., and Li, P. 2012. Preparation of cellulose acetate/zeolite
composite fiber and its adsorption behavior for heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. Chem.
Eng. J., 209: 325-333.
16. Kardam, A., Raj, K.R., Srivastava, S., and Srivastava, M.M. 2014. Nano cellulose fibers for
biosorption of cadmium, nickel, and lead ions from aqueous solution. Clean Tech Env. J. 16:
385-393.
17. Liu, B., Lv, X., Meng, X., Yu, G., and Wang, D. 2013. Removal of Pb(II) from aqeous
solution using dithiocarbomate modified chitosan bead with Pb(II) as imprinted ions. Chem.
Eng. J., 220: 412-149.
18. Liu, D., Zhu, V., Li, Z., Tian, D., Chen, L., and Chen, P. 2013. Chitin nanofibrils for rapid
and efficient removal of metal ions from water system. Carbo. Poly. J., 98: 483-489.
19. Mahvi, A., Ghadiri, K., Yusefi, N., and Fatehi Nezhad, A. 2011. Activated sludge is dried in
the absorption of lead and cadmium: modeling of adsorption isotherms and kinetics of
reactions. Ghom, J. University of Medical Sci., 6: 1.9-17. (In Persian)
20. Manshuri, M., Yazdanbakhsh, A., Daraei, M., and Noorisepehr, M. 2012. Lead removal
from aqueous solution using ostrich feathers modified by hydrogen peroxide. Hormozgan, J.
Med. Sci., 17: 4.307-315. (In Persian)
21. Marandi, R., and Amir Afshar, H. 2007. Biosorption Pb (II) and Zn (II) by non-living
biomass (pHanerochaete chrysosporium). J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 10: 4. (In Persian)
22. Mehdinia, SM., Abdul- Latif, P., and Taghipour, H. 2013. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by
physico-biological filters using mixed rice husk silica and dried activated sludge. Clean Soil
Air Water J., 41: 949-54.
23. Mehri, A., Ghsemiyan, A., Afra, A., and Gafari, R. 2012. A variety of nano-cellulose and its
applications. Hamedan. Second National Conference on sustainable agricultural development
and a healthy environment. (In Persian)
24. Mehdizadeh, S., Sadjadi, S., Ahmadi, S.J., and Outokesh, M. 2014. Removal of heavy metals
from aqueous solution using platinum nanoparticles/Zeolite-4A. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng.
J., 12: 7.
25. Mishra, S., and Bhattacharya, J. 2007. Batch studies on phenol removal using leaf activated
carbon. Malay. J. Chem. J. 9: 1-15.
26. Padervand, M., and Gholami, M.R. 2013. Removal of toxic heavy metal ions from waste
water by functionalized magnetic core–zeolitic shell nanocomposites as adsorbents.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research J. 20: 6.3900-3909.
27. Rezaei, H. 2013. Biosorption of Chromium by Using Spirulina SP. Arabian Chemistry J. 7: 2
1-8.
28. Ruhani, A.A., Honarmand, A., and Mehdinia, S.M. 2014. Study the removal of lead from
aqueous solutions using the new sorbent made from the skin of pistachio modified. Shahrud,
J. of Knowledge and Health., 10: 3.53-58. (In Persian)
29. Suopajärvi, T., Liimatainen, H., Karjalainen, M., Upola, H., and Niinimäki, J. 2014. Lead
adsorption with sulfonated wheat pulp nanocelluloses. Water Proc. Eng. J.
30. Yousefi, H., Hejazi, S., Mousavi, M., Azusa, Y., Heidari, A.H. 2013. Comparative study on
paper and nanopaper properties prepared from bacterial cellulose and fibers/ground
nanofibers of canola straw. Industrial Crops and Products, 43: 732-737.
31. Yu, B., Zhang, Y., Shukla, A., Shukla, SS., and Dorris, KL. 2000. The removal of heavy
metal from aqueous solutions by sawdust adsorption removal of copper. Hazard Mater J. 80:
33-42.
32. Zhu, H., Jia, S., Wan, T., Jia, Y., Yang, H., Li, J., Yan, L., and Zhong, C. 2011. Biosynthesis
of spHerical Fe3O4/bacterial cellulose nanocomposites as adsorbents for heavy metal ions.
Carbo. Poly. J. 86: 1558-1564.
33. Zhu, J., Gu, H., Chen, M., Wei, H., Luo, Z., Colorado, H., Yerra, N., Ding, D., Ho, T.C.,
Haldolaaraching, N., Hopper, J., Young, D.P., Guo, Z., and Wei, S. 2014. Mesoporous
magnetic carbon nanocomposite fabrics for highly efficient Cr (III) removal. Materials
Chem. J. 2: 2256-2265.