تاٌثیر ترکیب تاج پوشش توده جنگلی بر چرخه بیوژئوشیمیایی گونه راش هیرکانی (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) (مطالعه موردی: جنگل آموزشی پژوهشی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس- صلاح الدین کلا)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: گونه راش به عنوان یکی از با ارزش‌ترین گونه‌های صنعتی ایران با حضور در ترکیب‌های تاجی گونه‌های مختلف اثرات متفاوتی بر حاصل‌خیزی خاک خواهد داشت. مطالعات متعددی به بررسی نقش ترکیب تاج پوشش بر چرخه‌های بیوژئوشیمیایی پرداختند و نتایج متفاوتی حاصل شده‌ است. ترکیب‌های متفاوت تاج پوشش در مقیاس‌های مختلفی ناهمگنی ایجاد می‌کنند. این تفاوتها با تاٌثیری که بر کمیت و کیفیت جریان وروی و خروجی آب و عناصر غذایی دارند بر جریان‌های بیوژئوشیمیایی نیز اثرات مختلفی خواهند داشت. هدف این پژوهش تعیین عملکرد تاج پوشش خالص و آمیخته راش هیرکانی در تغییرات چرخه بیوژئوشیمیایی این گونه است.
مواد و روش: چهار ترکیب تاج پوشش درخت راش در اشکوب فوقانی، شامل راش- ممرز، راش- افراپلت، راش آمیخته (راش- افراپلت- ممرز) و راش خالص در جنگل آموزشی- پژوهشی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس مورد توجه قرار گرفت. برای هر ترکیب‌ پنج تکرار مشخص و در مجموع بیست قطعه نمونه در جنگل ایجاد شد. در فصل رویش (تابستان)، نمونه‌های لاشبرگ و خاک (10 × 50 ×50 سانتی‌متر) در نزدیکترین فاصله به تنه اصلی درختان راش و از چهار سمت آن جمع‌آوری و یک نمونه ترکیبی به آزمایشگاه انتقال داده شد. مشخصه‌های کربن و نیتروژن لاشبرگ، مشخصه‌های فیزیکی- شیمیایی خاک شامل وزن مخصوص، بافت خاک، رطوبت، واکنش خاک، کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل و مشخصه‌های زیستی و تصاعد گازی شامل زیتوده میکروبی کربن و نیتروژن، جمعیت و زیتوده کرم خاکی، تصاعد گازی متان، دی‌اکسید کربن و نیتروزاکسید اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: ترکیب آمیخته تاج پوشش بالاترین کیفیت لاشبرگ با بیشترین مقدار نیتروژن و کمترین مقدار کربن را نشان داد. کمترین مقدار چگالی ظاهری و بیشترین مقدار رطوبت خاک در ترکیب خالص راش مشاهده‌ شد و بافت خاک تفاوت معنی‌داری نشان نداد. بیشترین میزان pH و نیتروژن خاک در ترکیب آمیخته و بیشترین مقدار کربن و نسبت کربن به نیتروژن خاک در ترکیب خالص راش مشاهده ‌شد. بیشترین مقادیر زیتوده میکروبی کربن (80/707 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم)، زیتوده میکروبی نیتروژن (79/50 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم)، تصاعد دی‌اکسیدکربن (54/0 میلی‌گرم دی‌اکسیدکربن در مترمربع در روز) و نیتروزاکسید (38/ میلی‌گرم نیتروزاکسید در مترمربع در روز) در ترکیب خالص راش و بیشترین تعداد (60/2 تعداد در مترمربع) و زیتوده ‌کرم‌خاکی (29/ 11 میلی‌گرم در مترمربع) در ترکیب آمیخته مشاهده ‌شد. تصاعد متان تفاوت آماری معنی‌داری در بین ترکیب‌های مختلف درختی نشان نداد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد ترکیب تاج پوشش خالص راش نسبت به دیگر ترکیب‌های درختی بر چرخه‌های کربن و نیتروژن تاٌثیر بیشتری داشته ‌است و این تاثیر با توجه به مقادیر به دست آمده وابسته به سطح بالاتر رطوبت خاک و میزان کربن آلی بوده است. همچنین سایر مشخصه‌هایی که در مطالعات به تاٌثیر مثبت آنها بر چرخه‌های مذکور اشاره شده است در این مطالعه تاثیری نشان ندادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of canopy composition on biogeochemical cycle of Hyrcanian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) species (Case study: Experimental Forest Station of TMU-Salahedin Kala)

نویسنده [English]

  • Yahya Kooch 1
1 Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Aim and background: Beech is one of the most valuable industrial species in the Iran's Hyrcanian forests that has varieties of crown compositions with different species and soil fertility. Several studies have examined the role of canopy composition on biogeochemical cycles, and different results have been addressed. Different combinations of canopy covres create heterogeneity in different scales. Regarding to quantity and quality of input and output for flow of water and nutrients, the biogeochemical cycles will be so different. The aim of this study is to determine the revenue of pure and mixed crown of Hyrcanian beech in changes of biogeochemical cycles.

Materials and methods: In the above stratum of Experimental Forest Station of TMU, four crown compositions of beech spcies (i.e. beech-hornbeam, beech-maple, mixed beech including beech-hornbeam-maple and pure beech) were considered. Five replicates were selected for each composition and a total of twenty sample plots were set up in the forest. In the growth season (summer), litter and soil samples (50×50×10 cm) were collected from the neasrest location to main stem of beech trees. The samples were taken from four sides of trees and a composite sample was transferred to the laboratory. Litter’s (C and N) and soil (bulk density, texture, water content, pH, organic C, total N, microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, earthworm density/biomass, emission of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) features were measured.

Findings: Litter quality differed among the crown compositions, with the highest total N concentration and lowest organic C under mixed crown cover. Soil bulk density and water contents were respectively lower and higher under pure beech when compared with the other crown compositions. Soil texture was not significantly different among studied treatements, whereas greater amounts of pH and total N were detected under mixed crown covers. Soil organic C and C/N ratio were found to be significantly higher under pure beech than in the others. Pure beech showed the highest values of microbial biomass C (707.80 mg kg-1), microbial biomass N (50.79 mg kg-1), emission of carbon dioxide (0.54 mg CO2 m-2 d-1), nitrous oxide (0.38 mg N2O m-2 d-1) and the mixed composition showed the greater amounts of earthworm density (2.60 n m-2) and biomass (11.29 mg m-2). Methane emissions did not differ for the studied sites.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that pure beech has more effects on C and N cycles in compred to the other crown compositions. Among different litter and soil characters, the water contens and organic C had more highlights roles in changes of these cycles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gas emission
  • Salahedin Kala forest
  • soil
  • pure beech
  • mixed beech
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