مقایسۀ خصوصیات محیطی و رسته‌بندی رابطه گونه‌های چوبی با عوامل محیطی در جنگل‌های شهرستان ایلام

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی دانشگاه ایلام

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه ایلام

3 هیات علمی دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیاء بهبهان

4 هیأت علمی دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: از آنجا که پایداری طولانی مدت اکوسیستم‌های جنگلی وابسته به حفظ کیفیت خاک است، آگاهی از وضعیت خاک‌های مناطق جنگلی و بررسی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی به لحاظ درک فرایندهای خاکسازی حاِئز اهمیت می‌باشد. این مطالعه به‌منظور مقایسۀ خصوصیات محیطی، رسته‌بندی رابطه گونه‌های چوبی با عوامل محیطی در جنگل‌های شهرستان ایلام انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: به این منظور در رویشگاه غالب گونه‌های ارغوان، آلبالو‌وحشی، وامچک، بادام برگ سنجدی، دافنه، زالزالک، شن و کیکم 4 محل نمونه‌برداری به ‌صورت تصادفی انتخاب شد. در هر محل نمونه‌برداری سه نمونه تصادفی خاک از عمق 30-0 سانتیمتری برداشت شد و یک نمونه ترکیبی از آن به آزمایشگاه خاکشناسی منتقل شد. خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک شامل: اسیدیته، هدایت الکتریکی، فسفر، نیتروژن، پتاسیم، آهک، کربن‌آلی، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، رطوبت اشباع و بافت خاک اندازه‌گیری گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که بالاترین میزان نیتروژن و کربن‌آلی در گونه شن و کمترین مقدار در گونه وامچک مشاهده شد. بیشترین میزان فسفر، پتاسیم، رطوبت اشباع، هدایت الکتریکی و اسیدیته در خاک زیر اشکوب کیکم مشاهده شد، در حالیکه خاک گونه ارغوان بالاترین میزان وزن مخصوص ظاهری را نشان داد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که کمترین و بیشترین مقدار درصد آهک به ترتیب متعلق به گونه شن و ارغوان است. علاوه بر این بیشترین و کمترین میزان درصد شن به ترتیب در گونه وامچک و بادام برگ سنجدی نشان داده شد. بیشترین درصد رس در گونه آلبالو وحشی و کمترین میزان آن در گونه شن دیده شد. گونه شن بالاترین میزان درصد سیلت و وامچک کمترین میانگین را نشان داد. از نظر فیزیوگرافی گونه بادام برگ سنجدی در ارتفاع از سطح دریای بالاتری از سایر گونه‌ها و گونه کیکم و شن در بالاترین درصد شیب استقرار داشتند. نتایج آنالیز CCA نشان داد که بین عوامل محیطی و حضور گونه‌ها ارتباط معنی‌داری وجود دارد. عواملی همچون کربن‌آلی، نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، آهک، هدایت الکتریکی، رس، سیلت، شن، ارتفاع از سطح دریا و جهت دامنه بر حضور و عدم حضور گونه‌های درختی ودرختچه‌ای بیشترین تأثیر را دارند. حضور دو گونه بادام برگ سنجدی و شن در کنار هم بیانگر شرایط مشابه رویشگاهی آن‌ها و بالا بودن فسفر، پتاسیم، نیتروژن، کربن‌آلی، رطوبت اشباع، سیلت در ارتفاع از سطح دریای بالاتر بود. همچنین نزدیکی شرایط رویشگاهی گونه‌های دافنه، زالزالک، آلبالوی وحشی و ارغوان با میزان آهک و شن بالا در رویشگاه آن‌ها قابل تفسیر می-باشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی و عوامل محیطی در گونه‌های مختلف اختلاف معنی‌داری را نشان می‌دهند. همچنین این خصوصیات بر حضور و عدم حضور گونه‌ها تأثیر گذارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental characteristics and ordination of woody plant species and their relation with environmental factors in Ilam forest

نویسندگان [English]

  • JAVAD MIRZAEI 1
  • nahid jaafarian 2
  • Mostafa Moradi 3
  • Mehdi Heydari 4
4 ilam university
چکیده [English]

Bacground and objectives: Since the Long-term forest ecosystems sustainability is related to soil quality, forest soils study and evaluation of soil physico-chemical properties is necessary for soil forming process. This study was designed to compare the environmental characteristics and ordination of woody plant species and their relation in Ilam forest.
Materials and methods: For this purpose in Cercis griffithii, Cerasus microcarpa, Amygdalus Arabica, Amygdalus elaeagnifolia, Daphne mucronata Royle, Crataegus puntica, Lonicera nummularifolia and Acer cinerascen stands 4 Sampling location were randomly selected. In each location, three soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm and pooled. Samples were transferred to laboratory and Soil physico-chemical properties including: pH, EC, P, N, K, Cao3, C, bulk density, saturation humidity and soil texture were determined.
Resuits: Our result indicted that the highest and least values of nitrogen and organic carbon were observed in Lonicera nummularifolia and Amygdalus arabica respectively. The highest phosphorus, potassium, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity and pH were observed in Acer cinerascens stand. Cercis griffithii had the highest bulk density value. The least and highest cao3 were belonged to the Lonicera nummularifolia and Cercis griffithii respectively. Furthermore, the most and least amount of sand were observed in Amygdalus Arabica and Amygdalus elaeagnifolia stands. The highest and least value of clay belonged to the Cerasus microcarpa and Lonicera nummularifolia stands respectively. Lonicera nummularifolia had the most and Amygdalus arabica olivler had the least amount of silt. Also, Amygdalus elaeagnifolia was in the higher elevation above sea level rather than other species. Acer cineracens and Lonicera nummularifolia were located in steeper slopes. The result of CCA (Conical Correspondence analysis) revealed that there are significant correlation between environmental factors and studied woody plants species. Soil organic Carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium carbonate, electrical conductivity, clay, silt, sand, elevation and aspects have great impact on the presence or absence of studied woody plants species. Presence of Lonicera nummularifolia and Amygdalus elaeagnifolia together in a habitat with a similar conditions indicated the similarity of these two species for the site demands. Furthermore, higher phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen, organic carbon, soil moisture and silt were observed in higher elevation. Also, the similarity of Daphne species, Crataegus puntica, Cerasus microcarpa and Cercis griffithii habitat might be interpreted by higher values of calcium carbonate and sand in these habitats.
Conclusion: soil physico-chemical properties and environmental factors were significantly different in studied stands and these factors effects on presence or absence of species.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • elevation
  • physical and chemical properties
  • Zagros
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