کاربرد شاخص های نزدیک ترین همسایه در ارزیابی ساختار جامعه راش- ممرزستان در ناحیه رویشی هیرکانی (مطالعه موردی: جنگل های ناو اسالم گیلان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جنگلداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه لرستان

2 استادیار گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه لرستان.

3 دانشیار، بخش منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: حفظ ساختار و تنوع زیستی اکوسیستم ها، یکی از اهداف مهم جنگلداری نوین در نظر گرفته می شود. به این منظور، برای مدیریت جنگل به ابزارهایی نیاز است که بتوان با صرف کمترین هزینه و زمان به بررسی وضعیت فعلی و همچنین تغییرات ایجاد شده بر اثر فعالیت های مدیریتی و تکامل طبیعی جنگل پرداخت. شاخص های نزدیک ترین همسایه دارای مزایایی هستند که کاربرد آنها را نسبت به اندازه گیری های مستقیم تنوع زیستی ارجحیت می بخشد. زیرا علاوه بر بررسی تنوع گونه ای به بررسی موقعیت مکانی درختان می پردازند. همچنین شاخص های نزدیک ترین همسایه اطلاعات ارزشمندی در مورد روابط بوم شناختی درختان در جنگل ارائه می کنند. بنابراین این پژوهش با هدف معرفی و کاربرد شاخص های مهم مبتنی بر تحلیل نزدیک ترین همسایه در بررسی روابط بوم شناختی جامعه راش ممرزستان در جنگل های ناو اسالم گیلان انجام شد.
مواد و روش ها: به منظور انجام این پژوهش 7 قطعه نمونه یک هکتاری در جوامع طبیعی راش ممرزستان ناو اسالم گیلان که از لحاظ شرایط محیطی همگن بودند، آماربرداری شدند و در هر قطعه نمونه مشخصه های فاصله و آزیموت کلیه پایه های درختی موجود در قطعات نمونه با قطر برابر سینه بیش از 5/7 سانتی متر نسبت به مرکز قطعه نمونه یادداشت و گونه و قطر برابر سینه آن ها نیز ثبت شد. سپس با استفاده از شاخص های زاویه یکنواخت، میانگین جهت، آمیختگی گونه ای و تفکیک به تحلیل توزیع مکانی و تنوع گونه ای درختان پرداخته شد. مقدار هر یک از شاخص های مذکور ابتدا برای هریک از قطعات نمونه به صورت مجزا محاسبه شد. سپس با میانگین گیری از مقادیر به دست آمده برای هر یک از قطعات نمونه، مقدار میانگین شاخص ها برای جامعه راش ممرزستان محاسبه شد.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که در 7 قطعه نمونه یک هکتاری مورد بررسی در جامعه راش ممرزستان، گونه های راش، ممرز، شیردار، پلت و توسکای ییلاقی از نظر تعداد در هکتار دارای بیشترین مقدار تراکم پایه ها هستند. میانگین شاخص های زاویه یکنواخت و میانگین جهت به ترتیب 53/0 و 02/2 محاسبه شد که نشان دهنده توزیعی بین تصادفی و کپه ای است. از نظر تنوع گونه ای، جوامع راش ممرزستان با میانگین ارزش های 47/0 و 25/0 برای شاخص های آمیختگی گونه ای و تفکیک، دارای اختلاط گونه ای متوسطی بودند. مقدار شاخص آمیختگی گونه ای نشان دهنده اختلاط کم گونه راش و اختلاط زیاد سایر گونه ها بود. مقدار شاخص تفکیک نشان داد که جفت های درختی مشاهده شده یا نزدیک ترین همسایه های درختان مرجع متعلق به گونه های متفاوتی می باشد.
نتیجه گیری: به طور کلی نتایج این مطالعه کاربرد شاخص های نزدیک ترین همسایه را در تحلیل مولفه های ساختاری جوامع راش ممرزستان نشان می دهد و از نتایج به دست آمده می توان جهت برنامه ریزی به منظور احیای ساختار و وضعیت تنوع زیستی جوامع راش ممرستان تخریب یافته استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficiency of nearest neighbor indices to assessment structure of Fageto-Carpinetum in Growth area hyrcanian (Case Study: Nave Asalem-Gilan forests -Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Peyman farhadi 1
  • Javad Soosani 2
  • Syed Yousef Erfanifard 3
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Maintaining the structure and biodiversity of ecosystems is considered to be one of the most important goals of modern forestry. For this purpose, the tools are needed for forest management, to have the lowest cost and time to check the current status, as well as the changes caused by development of forest management activities. Indicators of nearest neighbor have advantages that their application gives priority to direct measurements of biological diversity. Because in addition to the study of species diversity, it investigates the locations of trees. Also nearest neighbor indices provide valuable information about ecological interactions of trees in forests. Therefore, this study was aimed to introduce and apply important indices based on nearest neighbor analysis to study ecological relationships of trees in beech-hornbeam stands in Nave Asalem- Gilan forests.
Materials and methods: In order to do this research, seven 1-ha plots with homogeneous environmental conditions were inventoried in a Fageto-Carpinetum association in Nave Asalem- Gilan. In each plot, distance and azimuth of all trees on the plot with more than 7.5 cm diameter at breast height from the center of sampling area and species, and diameter at breast height were recorded. The spatial pattern and species diversity were then investigated using the uniform angle, mean directional, species mingling and segregation indices. The amounts of each of the mentioned indices were calculated for each sample individually. The average of the values obtained for each sample were calculated for the Fageto-Carpinetum.
Results: The results showed in seven 1-ha plots of Fageto-Carpinetum, Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus, Acer cappadocicum, Acer velutinum and Alnus subcordata had the maximum density per hectare. The values of uniform angle and mean directional indices were 0.53 and 2.02, respectively, showing a spatial distribution between random and clustered. In terms of species diversity, the Fageto-Carpinetum association with an average of 0.47 and 0.25 for species mingling and segregation indices, respectively, presenting a medium level of species mixing. The amount of species mingling indices indicated low level of mixing of beech species and high level of mixing of other species. The segregation index showed a pair of trees or nearest neighbor reference trees belonged to different species.
Conclusion: In general, the results of this study indicated the efficiency of nearest neighbor indices to study the structure of Fageto-Carpinetum associations and the results can be used for planning to revitalize the structure and status of biodiversity in degraded Fageto-Carpinetum associations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial pattern
  • ecological
  • species diversity
  • Nave asalem forests
  • Nearest Neighbor
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