همزیستی قارچ‌های میکوریز اربوسکولار با درختان پده (.Populus euphratica Oliv) در جنگلهای کنار رودخانه‌ای و ارتباط آن با خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی ارشناسی ارشد گروه جنگلداری، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیا< بههبان

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیاء بهبهان

3 هیات علمی گروه جنکلداری، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم الانبیاء بهبهان

4 هیات علمی گروه علوم جنگل، دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: جنگلهای کنار رودخانه‌ای یکی از اکوسیستم‌های جنگلی منحصر به فردی است که اطلاعات کمی در رابطه با آنها وجود دارد. این جنگلها که نقش مهمی در اکوسیستم رودخانه دارند امروزه در معرض خطر نابودی قرار گرفته‌اند. یکی از شایع‌ترین گونه‌های موجود در این جنگلها، گونه پده (Populus euphratica) می‌باشد. این گونه در حاشیه رودخانه‌ها پراکنش داشته و بومی مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است. با توجه به اینکه اطلاعات چندانی در رابطه با وضعیت همزیستی قارچ‌های میکوریز با درختان پده در کشور در دست نیست در این مطالعه همزیستی قارچ‌های میکوریز آربوسکولار با پده مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و اثر دوری و نزدیکی به رودخانه در آغشتگی، اسپورزایی این قارچ‌ها ارزیابی شده است. همچنین به منظور تعیین موثرترین متغیرهای خاکی مورد مطالعه با میزان آغشتگی و تراکم اسپور، همبستگی بین این متغیرها تعیین شده است.
مواد و روشها: در این مطالعه عرض جنگل کنار رودخانه‌ مارون که 400 متر می‌باشد، به سه منطقه با فاصله 200 متری تقسیم شد. این فاصله‌ها شامل: حاشیه رودخانه (فاصله 1)، منطقه بینابینی (فاصله 2) و منطقه 3 بودند. در هر کدام از این فاصله‌ها 10 نمونه از خاک ریزوسفر پده جمع آوری شد. برای هر نمونه نیز ریشه‌های مویین جمع آوری شد و میزان آغشتگی قارچ‌ها و اسپورزایی برای نمونه‌ها مشخص گردید. همچنین خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک مربوط به هرکدام از این نمونه‌ها در فواصل مورد مطالعه نیز محاسبه شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج این پژوهش مشخص کرد که کمترین میزان آغشتگی ریشه در فاصله دوم (منطقه بینابینی) وجود دارد که دارای اختلاف معنی-داری با دو فاصله دیگر بود. همچنین، اگرچه بین تراکم اسپور در فاصله‌های مورد بررسی اختلاف معنی داری مشاهده نشد اما بیشترین تراکم در فاصله سوم مشاهده شد. از بین خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمایی خاک، میزان فسفر، شن و رس خاک تفاوت معنی‌داری در مناطق مورد بررسی داشتند ولی دیگر خصوصیات مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی داری را نشان ندادند. همچنین هیچ همبستگی معنی داری بین میزان آغشتگی و اسپورزایی با متغیرهای مورد بررسی مشاهده نشد ولی همبستگی معنی داری بین رس و سیلت با فسفر خاک مشاهده شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به میزان آغشتگی بالای ریشه و همچنین تراکم اسپور بالا در ریزوسفر پده، می‌توان این گونه عنوان نمود که پده دارای همزیستی بالایی با قارچ‌های میکوریز بوده که می‌توان از این همزیستی به عنوان راهکاری برای احیا و توسعه جنگلهای پده استفاده نمود. همچنین فاصله از رودخانه می‌تواند به عنوان یک عامل موثر در میزان همزیستی قارچ‌های میکوریز و درختان پده در جنگلهای کناررودخانه‌ای باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis with Populus euphratica Oliv in riparian forest and its correlation with soil physiochemical properties

نویسنده [English]

  • Mostafa Moradi 2
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Riparian forests are one of the unique forest ecosystems, but, there are little information available about these forest ecosystems in the Iran. These forests have an important role in riparian ecosystem protection, but they are in danger. Populus euphratica is one the most common tree species in these ecosystems and is a native species of arid and semiarid sites that spread out in most part of the Iran. Regarding to lack of data about symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and P. euphratica, this study was done to study of AMF symbiosis with P. euphratica and the effect of distance from river bank on root colonization and spore density. Furthermore, correlation between soil physiochemical properties, root colonization and spore density were investigated to determine the most effective parameters on this symbiosis.
Materials and methods: The Maroon riparian forest width was divided to three distances with 200 meter interval. Site one, two and three were located beside water, 200 and 400 meters away from river, respectively. Then, 10 soil samples belonged to P. euphratica rhizosphere were collected in each site. Also, for each selected tree, root samples were collected, and root length colonization and spore density were determined. Furthermore, soil physiochemical properties of each studied distance were determined.
Results: The result indicated that the least root length colonization belonged to the distance two and significantly was lower than the other two studied distances. This result might be because of human activity in this distance that could have negative effect on root length colonization. Moreover, although no significant difference was observed for spore density in studied distance, but the highest value of spore density belonged to the distance three. Soil phosphorous, sand and clay were significantly different between studied distances. While, the other studied soil physiochemical parameters showed no significant differences in studied distances. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between root length colonization and spore density. Significant correlation was observed between soil clay, silt and phosphorus. While, root length colonization and spore density showed no significant correlation with studied soil physicochemical parameters.
Conclusion: Regarding to the high level of root length colonization and spore density in P. euphratica rhizosphere we could say that there is high level of symbiosis between P. euphratica and mycorrhizal fungi. Using this symbiosis could be an effective way in protection and expansion of P. euphratica afforestation. Moreover, distance from river bank is an effective parameter on mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis in riparian forest.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Colonization
  • Fungi
  • Mycorrhizal
  • Populus euphratica
  • rhizosphere
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