عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: To supply the raw material there are some limitations for pulp and paper mills in countries including low source of softwoods such as destruction, diminishing forest area, undeveloped forests, and the required budget to import long fiber chemical pulp (2). Required newsprint paper is prepared by the product of Mazandran wood and paper mill or trough imports. To produce newsprint paper in Mazandran wood and paper industry, chemi-mechanical pulp plant was devised base on Hornbeam (75%) and Beech (25%) species. Due to shortage of these species, the replacement of mentioned species with other sustainable and efficient wooden alternative species is necessary. Hence, the mill has substituted partial of its raw materials with Populus. Due to source restriction of Beech and Hornbeam wood, research on the possibility of the replacement of these specious with other species was necessary. The feasibility of using branch woods of Hornbeam and Beech in compound of hardwoods Stems Wood mixture on CMP pulp properties was investigated by other researchers (10). Furthermore, other research projects illustrated that utilization of Birch and Populus as part of raw material of Mazandran wood and paper mill with Hornbeam and Beech is possible (5,8). The aim of this research work was to explore the possibility of partially replacement of Beech and Hornbeam woods with other under management species of the mill. Therefore, the feasibility of substitution of four forest species (Oak, Maple, Alder and Persimmon) and two non-forest species (Willow and Populus) to replace with the raw material of the mill was investigated by this study.
Materials and methods: The wooden species were gathered from forest and non-forest lands in the north of Iran and converted to chips by the chipper of Mazandran pulp and paper mill. Pulping stage was conduct by the cooking liquor of Mazandran pulp and paper mill. The various species were pulped via liquor to wood ratio of 7:1 at 170 °C and at different cooking times (30-120 min) in order to achieve optimum yield (85 percent). To bleach, the chips were subjected to hydrogen peroxide. Then, the pulps were refined to freeness degree of 325±25 ml CSF. According to the TAPPI standard methods handsheets of 60 g/m2 were made. Optical and mechanical properties of the made papers were determined base on ISO standard methods.
Results: The results of evaluating the strength and optical properties of the papers indicated that the best combination of species regarding to strength and brightness characteristics can be achieved by a mixture of 40 % Populous, 45% Hornbeam and 15% Beech.
Conclusion: For all treatments, tensile index, burst index, and tear index were elevated by increasing used percent of Populus. Although brightness level of the pulps was improved by augmentation the ratio of Populus, the opacity of papers dropped.
Keywords: Forest and non-Forest hardwood species, Newsprint paper, Chemi-mechanical pulp, optical and mechanical properties.