عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives
Forest utilization a management activities that first is marked the beginning and then included in logging off, lopping, Binet-saws, miter saws and finally skidding and transport of wood logs. Thus, in case of poor design and implementation of this process increased costs and environmental damage, such as loss of woods, limited use of resources and damage to the workforce. This study aimed to determine the minimum amount of waste wood and logs were cut down stresses level, to the extraction of the thickest and most functional wood logs also increased the recovery and productivity of trees and harvesting is the most pressure reduce forest areas.
Materials and methods:
The study present carriers in 5 compartment and 3 districts (1 , 2 and 3) of the habitat of the species beech forest in the south of the Caspian Sea in the city's efforts, the Asalem region, Guilan province. The 160 stem beech trees were marking selected of 10 to 115 cm in diameter classes randomly form and cutting by Asalem companies forest sector workers. Characteristics tree were measurements and recorded on forms. After entering data into Excel to determine the difference between the volume wood from bults (relative to the total volume of trees) at different levels of height, slope, aspect and quality of trees and the correlation between they with bults volume remained high was used of SPSS 20 software.
The results show that between, quality of the trunk, diameter of the surface bults and topographical, significant relationship exited elevation with the volume bult and volume truck. so observation that the highest volume of the trunk and bult in elevation of 1440-1650 meters, with quality trunk forks, fork and cylindrical plugs in diameters greater than 90 cm. Results of Pearson correlation, statistically significant relationship exited between volume truck and volume of bults revealed with quality truck and diameter of the surface bult.
In this study, the despite to exited the extra large diameter trees,but was cut in the lower height from half diameter bults and reamander bults had the low height and volume, Which cause minimal loss of industrial wood when cut operation and harvesting. In conclusion it can be stated, in addition to the tree characteristics (diameter) and elements of topography (slope), the skill and knowledge of felling timber is very effective in reducing the rate of loss.
Keywords: volume loss, environmental conditions, Characteristics quantitative, Beech.